Apple trees are large if grown from seed. Generally applecultivarsare propagated bygraftingonto rootstocks, which control the size of the resulting tree. There are more than 7,500 knowncultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, includingcooking, eating raw andciderproduction. Trees and fruit are prone to a number offungal,bacterialand pest problems, which can be controlled by a number oforganicand non-organic means. In 2010, the fruit'sgenomewassequencedas part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.
Worldwide production of apples in 2014 was 84.6 milliontonnes, with China accounting for 48% of the total.